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怎样培养口译思维?

时间:2018-12-21 13:39:07 编辑:


  口译学习,不能只关注语言和技巧层面的提高,还要关注于思维层面提升。今天北京翻译企业教大家怎样培养口译思维?

  Interpretation learning should not only focus on the improvement of language and skills, but also on the improvement of thinking. Today, Beijing Translation Company teaches you how to cultivate interpreting thinking.

  1.听意整体化——整体性思维

  1. Integration of Listening Sense: Integral Thinking

  口译人员,需要把握发言人讲话的整体意义,而不是企图把每个句子或表达都硬记下来,要主动的对内容要求进行定位,理清发言人的思路,从而完整的传达发言人所要表达的意思。

  Interpreters need to grasp the overall meaning of the speaker's speech, rather than trying to memorize every sentence or expression, positioning the content requirements on their own initiative, and clarifying the speaker's ideas, so as to fully convey the speaker's intended meaning.

  培养整体性思维,可从“听”处入手,在听的时候,要习惯性地问自己:“他说的话是什么意思?”要实现这一点,在“听”上要实现三个转变:从听字词转变为听意思、从听语言形式转变为听内在含义、从语音听辨转变为语流听辨。

  To cultivate holistic thinking, we should start with "listening", and when listening, we should habitually ask ourselves, "What does he mean by what he says?" To achieve this, we should realize three transformations in "listening": from listening to words to listening to meaning, from listening to language form to listening to internal meaning, and from listening to voice to listening to speech.

  遇到听不懂的词时,不要纠结于这个词语的字面意思,要学会丢卒保车,果断跳过该词,接着往下听,听整体的段落和篇章的意思。此外,除了听取发言人的用词用外,要学会去把握发言人的发言节奏、停顿和重音习惯等,在语流中实现辨音,抓取意思。

  When you encounter a word you don't understand, don't get caught up in the literal meaning of the word. Learn to throw your guard and jump over the word decisively. Then listen down and listen to the whole paragraph and the meaning of the text. In addition, besides listening to the speaker's words, we should learn to grasp the rhythm, pause and stress habits of the speaker's speech, so as to recognize the sound and grasp the meaning in the language flow.

  要是忽视发言节奏、停顿等语流层面的要素,单纯地听语言,可能听到最后,词语和句子全听懂了,却还是听不懂总体意思,临场翻译也会出现很大的误差。

  If we neglect the rhythm and pause of speech and simply listen to the language, we may hear that the final words and sentences are all understood, but we still can not understand the general meaning, and there will be great errors in on-the-spot translation.

  2.分析逻辑化——逻辑化思维

  2. Analytical Logicalization-Logical Thinking

  口译,不是简单翻译句子,而是在找寻各个句子和段落间的逻辑联系,是对发言人源语进行逻辑分析后的再加工,逻辑分析贯穿整个口译活动之中。

  Interpretation is not a simple translation of sentences, but a search for logical links between sentences and paragraphs. It is a reprocessing of the spokesman's source language after logical analysis, which runs through the whole interpretation activity.

  逻辑是口译的生命线,分析是口译的发动机。无分析,无逻辑。无逻辑,不口译。锻炼逻辑思维,可以听和说两端出发。要言之有理,首先要言之有据。

  Logic is the lifeline of interpretation, and analysis is the engine of interpretation. No analysis, no logic. No logic, no interpretation. Exercise logical thinking, you can start from both ends of listening and speaking. To be reasonable, first of all, we must be justified.

  对于说,有两种方式可以练习,一是即兴发言,随便拿一个话题,用“讲三点”的方式进行阐述,即陈述三条理由,做到有理有据、三条相互呼应并形成总体逻辑。二是,改述练习。找一些逻辑混乱的段落,自己看一遍后,用逻辑性的语言进行再阐述。

  There are two ways to practice speaking. One is to make an impromptu speech. One is to take a topic casually and elaborate it in the way of "speaking three points". That is, to state three reasons, so as to make them reasonable, three correspond to each other and form a general logic. Second, retelling exercises. Find some logical chaotic passages, read them for yourself, and explain them again in logical language.

  关于听,可以从点到线,再从线到面。开始时,可以将精力放在WHAT、WHO、WHEN、 WHERE、HOW、WHY等几个要点上,努力理出讲话人的思路,增强逻辑分析意识。将上述几个要素点分析出后,转为听取各个要素间的逻辑关系和转折点(听取各类关系标识词),抓住主线,归纳发言人具体思路。

  As for listening, you can go from point to line and then from line to surface. At the beginning, we can concentrate on several key points, such as WHAT, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, WHY, and strive to figure out the speaker's ideas and enhance the awareness of logical analysis. After the analysis of the above elements, we will listen to the logical relations and turning points between the elements (listen to all kinds of relationship markers), seize the main line, and summarize the speaker's specific ideas.

  最后,进行以逻辑主线为轴,对各个要素进行串联,进行结构性输出。上述练习,可先听A语/母语,然后用A语/母语输出。再过渡到听B语/外语,用B语/外语或者A语输出。

  Finally, take the logical main line as the axis, connect each element in series, and output structurally. For the above exercises, you can first listen to A/mother tongue, and then output in A/mother tongue. Then I will transfer to listening to B/foreign language and output in B/foreign language or A language.

  3.信息场景化——联想性/发散思维

  3. Information Scenario-Associative/Divergent Thinking

  同一种信息,图片信息的视觉印象要远深刻于听觉印象。在听辩时,可以尽量将抽象的听觉信息转化为具体的视觉信息,加速理解。

  For the same kind of information, the visual impression of picture information is far more profound than the auditory impression. In listening and debating, abstract auditory information can be transformed into specific visual information to speed up understanding.

  具体方法,是运用联想性思维,将相关信息场景化。比如,听杨澜在TED演讲《The generation that's remaking China》,以菜花甜妈在的“送你葱”开头,听到这里,要迅速联想到《中国达人秀》的相关场景,设置场景。后续,杨澜的演讲中又提到郭美美事件和微博,听到这里,要马上激活对郭美美事件的记忆,想到现实中的微博。将自己置身于具体场景之中,将所有信息具体化,减轻理解负担。

  The specific method is to use associative thinking to scene relevant information. For example, to listen to Yang Lan's TED speech "The Generation That's Reking China", which begins with "Give You Onions" with sweet cauliflower, we should quickly associate with the relevant scenes of "China's Got Talent Show" and set up scenes. Later, Yang Lan mentioned Guo Meimei and Weibo in her speech. Hearing this, we should immediately activate the memory of Guo Meimei and think of Weibo in reality. Place yourself in a specific scenario, concretize all the information and lighten the burden of understanding.

  此外,可以以构建信息树的方式锻炼发散思维。比如,仍以郭美美为例,将“郭美美”的词语,写在一张的中间,然后以其为中心,写出与其相关的词语和事件,逐层展开,构建信息树。信息树构建完毕后,用逻辑性的语言,将这张信息树进行阐述。

  In addition, divergent thinking can be exercised by constructing information tree. For example, still take Guo Meimei as an example, write the words of "Guo Meimei" in the middle of a piece, and then take it as the center, write out the words and events related to it, unfold layer by layer, and build an information tree. After the construction of information tree, this information tree is elaborated in logical language.

  4.抓大放小——听辨选择化

  4. Grasp the Big and Leave the Small --- Selection of Listening and Discrimination

  初学口译的学员,总是希翼所有的信息都听到、都记下,不分主次,给听辨和记忆带来了沉重负担。反映在笔记上,就是眉毛胡子一把抓,什么都想用笔记记下来,不敢舍弃。最后发现,一句话记下来了,耳中已经有几句话闪过。

  The beginners of interpreting always hope that all the information will be heard and written down, regardless of priority, which brings heavy burden to hearing and memory. Reflected in the notes, is the eyebrows and beard grasp, everything want to write down with notes, dare not abandon. Finally, it was found that a sentence had been written down and a few words had passed through my ears.

  结果是捡了芝麻,丢了西瓜,导致大量主干信息的丢失。不同于初学者,有经验的译员,留在脑中的信息并不多,只是留存了主干信息和记忆支点,笔记中记下的也是主干信息和逻辑主线,但输出却非常完整。

  As a result, sesame seeds were picked up and watermelons were lost, which resulted in the loss of a large amount of backbone information. Unlike beginners, experienced interpreters do not have much information left in their minds. They only retain the backbone information and memory fulcrum. They also record the backbone information and logical backbone in their notes, but the output is very complete.

  口译听辨,一是辨认逻辑关系,二是识别和留存主干信息。识别主干信息,即选择性听辨,可以从单句开始,识别关键词。然后扩展到听段落,识别主干意群或中心句,培养选择性思维。对于篇章,在听完篇章后,说出或写出该段落的中心思想,然后再用一句话进行浓缩。

  Interpretation and listening are to identify logical relations and to identify and retain backbone information. Recognition of backbone information, namely selective listening, can start with a single sentence and identify key words. Then it extends to listening passages, identifies main meaning groups or central sentences, and cultivates selective thinking. For a passage, after listening to the passage, say or write out the main idea of the paragraph, and then condense it with a sentence.

  5.语言处理条块化——意群切分

  5. Language Processing Block-Meaning Group Segmentation

  口译,听取的是意思,而不是单词。另外,口译不同于笔译,对于倒装句、状语后置等句子,不可能进行乾坤大挪移时的句序调整。尤其是在同传时,要的顺句驱动。

  Interpretation is about meaning, not words. In addition, interpretation is different from translation. For inverted sentences, adverbial postposition and other sentences, it is impossible to adjust the sentence order when the universe shifts greatly. Especially in simultaneous transmission, we should be driven by the following sentences.

  所以,口译人员要灵活的断句——以意群为单位进行信息处理,把句子打散,条块化的提取信息。如果说前面几大思维是从宏观上把握,那么意群就是从微观上入手,进行理解。意群切分练习,可以从视译和听辨两处入手。多做视译,是有效养成处理条状话化思维的有效方式,有百利而一害。

  Therefore, the interpreter should be flexible in the processing of information in the unit of meaning group, breaking up sentences and extracting information in blocks. If the first few thoughts are grasped from the macro level, then the meaning group is understood from the micro level. The practice of meaning group segmentation can start from two aspects: visual translation and auditory discrimination. Doing more visual translation is an effective way to cultivate and deal with structured thinking, which is beneficial and harmful.

  听辨时,可以先从长句开始,培养以意群为单位的听取意识,逐渐扩展意群长度,扩大听幅,然后扩展到段落和篇章。切成意群、语言条状话的目的不是为了“散”,而是为了“合”——是为了提升听辨效率。

  When listening, we can start with long sentences, cultivate the sense of listening in the unit of meaning group, gradually expand the length of meaning group, expand the listening range, and then expand to paragraphs and chapters. The purpose of cutting into meaning groups and language bars is not to "scatter", but to "fit" - to improve the efficiency of listening.

  提升信息处理速度,更好的进行整体信息的输出。断而不乱,在切的同时,要体会各意群间的联系,在输出的时候用逻辑词或者联系词,将其粘合在一起。

  Increase the speed of information processing, better output of the overall information. Continuously without confusion, while cutting, we should understand the connection between different groups of ideas, and use logical words or connective words to glue them together when we output them.

  6.追求简约美——简洁化思维

  6. Pursuing the Beauty of Simplicity: Simplicity of Thinking

  口译是与时间赛跑的游戏,要在有限的时间内输出大量的信息。在保证逻辑性和全面的同时,要学会讲话说短、说简。要做到简,首先从繁做起——一句多表,一词多译,要养成多样性表达、灵活转换的习惯。

  Interpretation is a game of running against time. It needs to output a lot of information in a limited time. While guaranteeing logicality and comprehensiveness, we should learn to be short and concise. To simplify, we should first start with complexity - one sentence with many tables and one word with many translations. We should cultivate the habit of diversified expression and flexible transformation.

  在灵活表达、全面输出信息的同时,尽量追求短而简,说活不要啰嗦,不要含沙射影,要学会直奔主题。要提升口译的整体能力,首先要构建思维之路。口译入门,也不能忘记思维能力的训练。

  While expressing and exporting information flexibly and comprehensively, we should try our best to be short and concise. We should not talk too long, talk in a roundabout way, and learn to go straight to the theme. In order to improve the overall ability of interpreting, we must first construct the way of thinking. Interpretation beginners should not forget the training of thinking ability.

中译国际翻译(北京)有限企业
China International Translation service Co., Ltd.

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