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怎样判断口译质量的优劣?

时间:2018-12-27 15:22:03 编辑:


  北京翻译企业判断口译质量的优劣主要是看准确度和流利度,从严复提出“信”、“达”、“雅”的翻译标准后,翻译界对“信、达、雅”的说明各有不同,但大部分学者对这些标准所持的态度是肯定的。

  The quality of interpretation is judged by the accuracy and fluency of the Beijing Translation Company. After putting forward the translation standards of "letter", "reach" and "elegance", the interpretation of "letter, reach and elegance" in translation circles is different. But most scholars are positive about these standards.

  翻译能做到“信、达、雅”固然不错,问题在于翻译不是照相业的复制行当,难以做到“信、达、雅”三全。基于不同学问的各族语言在翻译过程中难保原汁原味原形原貌,因而“信、达、雅”只能是相对的。

  The problem is that translation is not a photocopying industry, so it is difficult to achieve "letter, reach, elegance". Languages based on different cultures can not guarantee the original form in the process of translation, so "trust, reach, elegance" can only be relative.

  有时“信”虽然达标,而“达”和“雅”却有所不达,有所不雅。于是便出现了“信、达、雅”三标准之主从关系的争论。时至今日,争论仍在延续,焦点无非集中在翻译究竟应以“直译”还是“意译”为本的问题上。

  Sometimes, though the letter is up to standard, it is not up to the standards and the elegance. Therefore, there is a debate about the relationship between the three standards of faith, conformity and elegance. Today, the debate is still continuing, focusing on whether translation should be based on "literal translation" or "free translation".

  其实,“信”、“达”、“雅”作为衡量笔译作品质量之优劣的三条标准,是一个互为依存、缺一不可的整体,片面强调“直译”或“意译”的孰主孰辅是无意义的。一篇上乘的译文从内容到形式都应忠实反映原文的内容和形式,都应被译文的读者所感知和理解。

  In fact, "letter", "reach," and "elegance", as three standards to measure the quality of translation works, are a interdependent and indispensable whole, and it is meaningless to unilaterally emphasize the importance of "literal translation" or "free translation". A good translation, from content to form, should faithfully reflect the content and form of the original text and should be perceived and understood by the readers of the translation.

  译文的内容、精神和风格不可顾此失彼,应该基本做到“信”、“达”、“雅”。任何刻意的直译或意译行为,单方面地求“信”、“达”、“雅”中的某条标准,严格说来都不是真正意义上的翻译,而是“改译”或“编译”。

  The content, spirit and style of the translation should not be ignored, but should basically be "letter", "Da" and "elegant". Any deliberate act of literal or free translation unilaterally seeks a standard of "faith", "achievement" or "elegance", which is strictly not a true translation, but a "transliteration" or "translation".

  至于口译的标准,套用笔译的“信、达、雅”三原则是恰当的。口译不同于笔译,口译的“现时”、“现场”、“限时”的特点决定了口译的标准有别于笔译的标准。衡量口译质量的基本标准应该是“准确”和“流利”。

  As for the standard of interpretation, it is appropriate to apply the three principles of translation. Interpretation is different from translation. The characteristics of "present", "spot" and "limited time" determine that the standard of interpretation is different from that of translation. The basic standards of interpreting quality should be "accuracy" and "fluency".

  首先,口译必须“准确”。不准确的口译可能是“篡译”,也可能是“误译”,是不能容忍的。准确是口译的灵魂,是口译的生命线。准确要求译员将原语这一方的信息完整无误地传达给目标语的那一方。

  First, interpretation must be "accurate". Inaccurate interpretation may be "usurpation" or "misinterpretation", which is intolerable. Accuracy is the soul of interpretation and the lifeline of interpretation. The interpreter is required to convey the information from the source language to the target party in a complete and unmistakable manner.

  具体说来,口译的准确涉及口译时的主题准确、精神准确、论点准确、风格准确、词语准确、数字准确、表达准确、语速准确以及口吻准确等方面。归根结底,准确的译语应该同时保持原语的意义和风格。准确的口译不仅是双语成功交际的保障,而且也是译员职业道德和专业水平的集中体现。

  Specifically, the accuracy of interpretation involves the accuracy of the topic, spirit, argument, style, words, numbers, expression, speed and tone of speech. In the final analysis, an accurate target language should maintain both the meaning and style of the source language. Accurate interpretation is not only the guarantee of successful bilingual communication, but also the professional ethics and professional level of interpreters.

  准确的口译不仅体现了译员对交际活动的敬重和负责,而且也体现了译员对交际双方的敬重和负责。必须指出,大家所讲的准确性并非是那种机械刻板的“模压式”口译或“盖章式”口译。例如,对原语者明显的口吃,不可妄加模仿。对交际一方过快或过慢的语速、明显的口误或浓重的口音,译员也不可模压炮制,鹦鹉学舌般地如数传递给另一方。

  Accurate interpretation reflects not only the respect and responsibility of interpreters for communicative activities, but also the respect and responsibility of interpreters for both sides of communication. It is important to note that the accuracy we speak of is not the kind of mechanical "moulding" or "stamped" interpretation. For example, the apparent stuttering of the original speaker should not be imitated. Nor should the interpreter parrot the way one communicates too fast or too slowly, an obvious slip of the tongue or a strong accent, and parrot the other.

  “流利”是译员必须遵循的另一大标准。译员在确保“准确”口译的前提下,应该迅速流畅地将一方的信息传译给另一方。如果说“准确”也是笔译的基本要求,那么“流利”则充分体现了口译的特点。口译的现场性、现实性、即席性、限时性、交互性等因素要求口译过程宜短不宜长,节奏宜紧不宜松。口译是交际工具,工具的价值在于效用和效率。

  Fluency is another standard that an interpreter must follow. An interpreter should quickly and fluently interpret one party's information to the other while ensuring "accurate" interpretation. If "accuracy" is also the basic requirement of translation, fluency fully embodies the characteristics of interpretation. Some factors, such as scene, reality, improvisation, time-limit and interactivity, require that the interpreting process should be short rather than long, and the rhythm should be tight rather than loose. Interpreting is a communicative tool, the value of which lies in effectiveness and efficiency.

  工具首先得有效用,否则就不成其为工具,但有效用而无效率(或低效率)的工具决不是好工具。那么,如何来衡量口译的流利程度呢?口译的流利程度包括译员对原语信息的感知速度和解析速度,及其用目标语进行编码和表达的速度。

  Tools must be effective first, otherwise they are not tools, but tools that are effective and inefficient (or inefficient) are never good tools. So, how to measure the fluency of interpreting? The fluency of interpreting includes the perceiving speed and parsing speed of the original language information, and the speed of encoding and expressing the target language.

  通常,口译时译员对母语信息的感知速度和解析速度快于对外语信息的感知速度和解析速度,同时用母语编码和表达的速度也快于用外语编码和表达的速度。

  Generally, interpreters perceive and parse the native language information faster than the foreign language information, and the speed of encoding and expressing in the mother tongue is also faster than that in the foreign language.

  在口译场合,译员对信息的感知和解析受到“现时”“限刻”的制约,无法“自由自在”地调节速度,所以必须同步加工。而在编码和表达阶段,由于译员可以自我控制速度,所以目标语为母语的口译所需要的时间相对少于目标语为外语的口译所需要的时间。

  In interpreting situations, the interpreters' perception and interpretation of information are restricted by the "present" limited engraving ", and they cannot" freely "adjust the speed, so they must process synchronously. At the stage of coding and expression, the interpreter can control the speed of the target language, so the time required for the target language is less than that for the target language.

  当然,口译的类型、内容、场合、对象、风格等因素都会对口译的速度产生影响,用同一把尺子来衡量不同类别的口译是不合理的。一般说来,大家可以依据译员所用的口译时间是否同发言者的讲话时间大体相等来衡量口译是否属于流利。以两倍于原语发言者的讲话时间进行口译者显然不能被视为流利。

  Of course, the type, content, occasion, object, style and other factors will affect the speed of interpretation. It is unreasonable to use the same ruler to measure different types of interpretation. Generally speaking, we can judge whether interpreters are fluent in terms of whether the interpretation time is roughly equal to the speaking time of the speaker. An interpreter who speaks twice as long as the original speaker is clearly not considered fluent.

中译国际翻译(北京)有限企业
China International Translation service Co., Ltd.

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