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时间：2019-02-26 15:01:40 编辑：
Academic translation generally requires that the content and style of the translation be faithful to the original text. Both literal translation and free translation can be used. Today, the Medical Translation Company summarizes some common problems encountered in academic translation, hoping to be helpful to you. Let's take a look at them.
The translation of professional terms should be accurate and adopt the domestic common translation methods as far as possible.
Academic works are different from general literary works, and proper nouns should be unified according to certain norms in order to facilitate academic dissemination and exchange.
In dealing with the translation of names, the name translation manuals published by Xinhua News Agency and Commercial Press, such as English Name Translation Manual, German Name Translation Manual and French Name Translation Manual, are commonly used. Some names, if they have been recognized as generic translations, are not standardized, but they are also used as generic translations. For example, Adam Smith is translated as "Adam Smith" instead of "Adam Smith".
Place names shall be based on the Handbook of Translating Foreign Place Names published by the Commercial Press and the China Map Publishing House, or on the latest map published by the China Map Publishing House or the latest edition of Cihai. In addition, some company names and organization names should be translated into common domestic names, such as "IBM Company" should not be translated into "International Commercial Machinery Company".
In particular, translators are reminded of three points:
In principle, all translations in the text should be translated. If there is no uniform translation in the translation manual, the translation method can be unified after consultation with the editor.
(2) Under special circumstances, if a large number of names appear in the content of thanks, or there are too remote translations in the text, the original text can be retained after consultation with the editor-in-charge.
(3) The use of translated names should be consistent. When a translated name appears for the first time, it is better to mark the original text and record the translated name. When it appears again, it is better to use a unified translated name instead of a foreign language.
Punctuation marks should be adjusted according to the sentence pattern and grammar of Chinese translation, without being strictly adhered to the original text. For example, in many legal works, the author likes to use long sentences for the sake of rigorousness. Chinese translation should not be completely copied. The punctuation writing format shall be in accordance with the Chinese format. If there are mixed sentences in Chinese and foreign languages, punctuation can be selected according to the specific situation.
The text content in the chart must be translated completely, and the specific foreign language in the picture or photograph can not be translated. Translators should be reminded that the source instructions under the chart, together with annotations and references, should be processed. Complicated charts can be produced by the publishing house in consultation with the editor, and the translator can translate the text in the charts.
It is suggested that the use of Arabic numerals to represent specific centuries and years, such as the 1980s, should not be recommended. The correct usage of age ambiguity is the 1960s and 1970s. Misuse: 1960s and 1970s or 1960s and 1970s.
There are often italics in foreign works, which indicate different meanings. They should be dealt with according to different situations in translation. If italics denote emphasis, Chinese will be highlighted or bold; if italics belong to the whole paragraph or sentence citation, Chinese will use a font different from the text; if italics denote the title of a book or article, Chinese will add the title of a book; if italics denote the name of a case, it will not be translated in principle, if translated, Chinese will be double-quoted; if italics denote Latin or other uncommon ancient texts. Words, Chinese format and font are unchanged, just put Latin words in brackets (italics) after their translation.
If there are abbreviations for important names appearing in the original text, indicate the full name of the original text at the first appearance, and attach abbreviations.
For quotations appearing in the original work, if they come from a classical work and the classical work has been translated into Chinese in general, they should be translated according to the existing Chinese versions in principle, but the translator is allowed to modify and adjust reasonably. For those with large quotations, the translator should indicate which Chinese version they came from.
For some of the more remote and difficult words in the original text, it is suggested that the translator try to include the original text after the translation so as to facilitate the reader's understanding.
This is a unique translation criterion for academic translation works, because academic works often end up with keyword index or person name index, usually the pages of these indexes are not reproduced according to the translation, but retain the pages of the original book.
To make these indexes work, it is necessary to mark the page number of the original book. The annotation method is usually based on the first word at the beginning of each page of the original book, and the page number is marked at the corresponding Chinese translation. If the order of translation is different from that of the original text, we can also choose the most convenient way to mark the page number of the original text for readers to retrieve.