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笔译翻译的技巧有什么?

时间:2019-06-13 16:40:53 编辑:


  笔译翻译是非常常见的一种翻译方式,由于语言的不同,进行翻译的时候需要注意一些技巧,下面图书翻译企业给大家说说笔译翻译的技巧有什么?

  Translation is a very common way of translation. Due to the different languages, we need to pay attention to some skills in translation. What are the skills of translation?

  一、增译主语

  1. Additional Subject Translation

  由于英文的表达习惯,常常会用一些抽象名词作为主语,而中文的表达习惯则是需要把抽象变为具体;英文中常常会为了避免重复而多使用介词,中文则不怕重复,一个词往往会用上好几遍;英语中的复数名词翻译为汉语时,常常加入这些、各种、种种等,要视具体的语境情况而定。

  Because of the expressive habits of English, some abstract nouns are often used as the subject, while the expressive habits of Chinese need to turn abstraction into concrete. In English, prepositions are often used to avoid repetition, while Chinese is not afraid of repetition, and a word is often used several times. When plural nouns are translated into Chinese, these, various, and other items are often added to the English translation. The context of aspect depends.

  二、增译谓语

  2. Additional Translation of Predicates

  英语中出现两个或多个相同的谓语时,常常会被省略,以使句子显得不那么赘余。而在中文里则要译出来,使其表达更加的地道;英文中的介词短语译为中文时往往是需要增译动词的;有些英语中的名词在译为中文时要加入相应的动词,使其含义更加的完整,表达更加的明确。

  When two or more identical predicates appear in English, they are often omitted to make sentences less redundant. In Chinese, it is necessary to translate prepositional phrases to make them more authentic; English prepositional phrases are often translated into Chinese with additional verbs; some English nouns are translated into Chinese with corresponding verbs to make their meanings more complete and express more clearly.

  三、时间状语

  3. Adverbial of Time

  时间状语常常可以直接翻译,一般译到主句前。

  Adverbials of time can often be translated directly, usually before the main sentence.

  有的时间状语从句的引导词除了表示时间以外,还会附带条件性,所以在翻译的时候要译出条件关系。

  Some introductory words of adverbial clauses of time not only express time, but also attach conditionality, so conditional relations should be translated in translation.

  四、原因状语

  4. Adverbial of Reason

  英语中的状语位置比较灵活,既可以放在主句前也可以置于主句后,而中文表达常常需要遵循“前因后果”的顺序,所以在翻译的时候也要注意调整好语序。

  Adverbial positions in English are flexible, which can be placed before or after the main sentence. Chinese expressions often follow the order of "antecedents and consequences", so we should pay attention to adjusting the word order when translating.

  但上面所述的情况也不是绝对的,原因状语也可以放在主句后,这样也能对应汉语中的结构“之所以……是因为”。

  But the situation mentioned above is not absolute either. The adverbial of cause can also be placed after the main sentence, which can also correspond to the structure of "Why..." Because.

  五、目的状语

  5. Target Adverbial

  总的来说,目的状语要放在主句前翻译,把说明情况的主句放在后面。

  Generally speaking, the target adverbial should be translated before the main sentence, and the subject sentence explaining the situation should be put behind.

  目的状语也可翻译在主句的后边,表示以免、以防、使得、生怕等等。

  The target adverbial can also be translated at the back of the main sentence to indicate avoidance, prevention, making, fear and so on.

  六、译成汉语的主动句

  6. Active Sentences Translated into Chinese

  一般被动句的主语是无生命的主语,翻译时常常要将原文的主语译为汉语中的主语。

  The subject of a passive sentence is an inanimate subject. In translation, the subject of the original text is often translated into the subject of Chinese.

  主语宾语颠倒位置

  Subject-object inversion

  一般英语中,当动作主体的词前加上by时或由介词短语构成时,在译文中by后边的动作主体词或该介词短语中的名词就要充当主语,宾语则是由原文中的主语充当。

  In general English, when the subject of an action is preceded by a by or is composed of prepositional phrases, the subject of the action or the noun in the prepositional phrase behind by in the translated text will act as the subject, while the object will be acted as the subject in the original text.

  增加主语

  Increasing Subject

  一些被动句在译为主动句时要增加一些主语,比如大家、人们、大家等等。

  When some passive sentences are translated into active sentences, some subjects should be added, such as us, people, everybody and so on.

  七、译成汉语中的无主句

  7. Translating Non-Subject Sentences into Chinese

  汉语无主句较多,这与大家的思维方式以及说话表达习惯等因素有关。很多情况下,大家和处于同一背景生长环境下的人聊天,都不需要说主语的,但对方却能理解你的意思。

  There are many non-subject sentences in Chinese, which are related to our thinking mode and speaking habits. In many cases, we don't need to speak the subject when we chat with people who are growing up in the same background, but the other side can understand what you mean.

  八、译成被动句

  8. Translating into Passive Sentences

  并不是所有英文中的被动句都能译为中文的主动句。当一些被动句着重在强调被动意义时,突出的应该是被动的动作,那么这种情况下仍然要译为被动句。在汉语中,要用这些词来表示被动意义,比如:被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为……所、由……来”等等。

  Not all English passive sentences can be translated into Chinese active sentences. When some passive sentences emphasize the passive meaning, the prominent action should be the passive action. In this case, they still need to be translated into passive sentences. In Chinese, we should use these words to express passive meanings, such as being, receiving, suffering, giving, giving, giving, giving, getting, receiving, giving, getting, getting, doing, getting, doing, doing, etc. So, by... Come and wait.

中译国际翻译(北京)有限企业
China International Translation service Co., Ltd.
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