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时间：2019-03-01 15:59:34 编辑：
Translation quality refers to whether the requirements specified by the clients or objectively contained in the users'requirements can be met. Today, medical translation companies share with you the factors that affect the quality of translation.
Ⅰ. Textual factors
1. Obstacles to Semantic Understanding:
阅读和分析原文阶段，原文的语义含糊性和句法复杂性是影响等值程度最主要的因素。由于原文有意无意的语义含糊，译者很难确定原文的真实语义，不同的人有不同的理解，也就产生不同的译文。如，以汉语为母语的人常喜欢间接地或迂回地表达自己对一个男孩或女孩长相的看法，便说“她长得困难”——这就不能不给译者带来“别扭”的感觉。如果直译为“She grows difficult.”老外读了可能费解;如果意译为“She looks ugly.”原文的风趣就丧失了。
In the stage of reading and analyzing the original text, the semantic ambiguity and syntactic complexity of the original text are the most important factors affecting the degree of equivalence. Because of the intentional or unintentional ambiguity of the original text, it is difficult for the translator to determine the true meaning of the original text. Different people have different understandings, and thus different translations are produced. For example, native speakers of Chinese often like to express indirectly or circuitously their views on a boy or girl's appearance, and then say "she is difficult to grow" - which can not help but give the translator a feeling of "awkwardness". If literally translated as "She grows difficult." foreigners may be puzzled; if freely translated as "She looks ugly." the original text loses its wit.
To overcome semantic ambiguity and convey the original semantics accurately, translators are required to have a high grasp of the source language, take all the factors related to the original semantics into consideration as far as possible, and excavate the true connotation of the original text. Even so, it is difficult to achieve absolute "equivalence".
The complexity of the original sentence is also a thorny problem for the translator. Before translation, the translator has to reorganize the complex syntax, that is, to translate it into the target language first and then into the target language, which also affects the equivalence to a certain extent.
2. Different ways of expression:
After the analysis of the original text, translators also encounter many factors affecting equivalence, mostly related to the way of expression and style. In the same syntactic unit of the original text, the translation usually has several expressions with different equivalence (except for fixed usage). To some extent, the choice of expression determines the degree of equivalence of the translation.
Our principle of choice is to choose the most natural equivalents, that is, to adopt the expressions that are most in line with the conventions and collocations of idioms in the target language.
3. Different grammatical structures:
正如Mona Baker所说，不同语言有不同的语法范畴、语法规则和语法结构，这些不同导致它们传达信息的方式也不同。译文语言若缺失原文语言的某种语法范畴或结构，则在译文中很难找到一个与原文直接对应的对等物，译者也不得不对原文的信息或增或删、做出某些取舍。在这些影响翻译的语法范畴中，Mona Baker尤其强调了数、性、时态和语体、语态、人称。
As Mona Baker said, different languages have different grammatical categories, rules and structures, which lead to different ways of conveying information. If the target language lacks some grammatical category or structure of the source language, it is difficult to find a direct equivalent in the target text, and the translator has to add or delete the information of the source text and make some trade-offs. Among the grammatical categories that influence translation, Mona Baker emphasizes numeral, gender, tense and style, voice and person in particular.
Therefore, the grammatical differences between different languages are also an important factor affecting the degree of equivalence. The greater the difference in grammar, the more difficult it is to achieve equivalence.
4. The genre of the article:
Genre is a very important factor affecting translation equivalence. Different genres have different functions, such as expressive function, informative function or vocative function, which can not be ignored in translation. One of the four principles Nida put forward when discussing "dynamic equivalence" is that the literary genre of the original text plays the same role.
For example, if the original genre has the cognitive function, the translation must also have this function. The linguistic function of the original text is the aesthetic function, and the translation must also realize the aesthetic function. Poetry is generally regarded as the most difficult literary genre to achieve equivalence or even untranslatability, not only because of its characteristics in terms of characters, phonology and metaphor, but also because of its charm, artistic conception or taste, that is, what makes poetry poetry impossible for ordinary people to reach.
Different genres of articles should have different equivalence criteria, and even each article should have its own equivalence criteria.
Ⅱ. Cultural factors
Different nationalities have different historical backgrounds, modes of thinking and social customs, thus forming their own unique cultural background, these cultural differences will be carried in their different languages. Correct understanding of the cultural connotations of the source text and analysis of cultural differences between the source language and the target language are prerequisites for equivalence translation. Generally speaking, the greater the difference between the two languages and cultures, the more difficult the equivalence conversion between the two languages will be, and the more the degree of equivalence will be affected.
Only when we fully consider this cultural difference and try to express the cultural information and connotation of the source language in a way consistent with the cultural habits of the target language, can we achieve a higher degree of equivalence.
Ⅲ. Translator factors
Translation is also inseparable from human activities, and the result depends largely on the translator. Translators have their own interests, hobbies, advantages, linguistic competence and extralinguistic experience, which determine their translation results.
The translator's own level, that is, his comprehensive literacy, has also become an important factor affecting the degree of equivalence. It includes the translator's bilingual proficiency, the depth and sensitivity of understanding the two cultures, the ability to understand the target audience and the ability to predict the scope of knowledge, etc.
Generally speaking, the stronger the translator's problem-solving ability and comprehensive quality, the greater the possibility of obtaining equivalence and the higher the degree of equivalence. The key to the quality of the translated version lies in the translator, the translator's translation ability and whether the translator's translation ability is fully utilized.