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人类健康之五大杀手

时间:2018-06-11 10:17:39 编辑:


  Five big killers of human health  Loneliness

  

  The growth of social media and waning <http://dict.qsbdc.com/waning> in-person contact has led Former Surgeon General Vivek Murthy to label loneliness a worldwide epidemic <http://dict.qsbdc.com/epidemic>. And it could be lethal <http://dict.qsbdc.com/lethal>.

  

  Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a professor of psychology <http://dict.qsbdc.com/psychology> at Brigham Young University, has found in her research that loneliness reduces people's life spans by the equivalent of smoking 15 cigarettes a day.

  

  Sitting

  

  Sitting all day increases risk for a raft of different cancers, a 2014 study found.

  

  Researchers included in their meta-analyses data from four million people involving how often they sat to watch TV, do work, and commute <http://dict.qsbdc.com/commute>.

  

  Each two-hour increase in sitting time upped people's risks for colon <http://dict.qsbdc.com/colon>, endometrial, and lung cancers, regardless of whether they still exercised during the day.

  

  Sleep loss

  

  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have called sleep deprivation <http://dict.qsbdc.com/deprivation> a public health problem, as some 50 to 70 million people in the US have sleep or wakefulness disorder <http://dict.qsbdc.com/disorder>.

  

  Professor Valery Gafarov, of the World Health Organisation <http://dict.qsbdc.com/Organisation>, noted <http://dict.qsbdc.com/noted> in 2015 that insufficient <http://dict.qsbdc.com/insufficient> sleep raises the risk of stroke and heart attack to similar degrees as regular cigarette use.

  

  "Poor sleep should be considered a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease along with smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet," he said.

  

  Tanning

  

  Indoor tanning may seem like a more controlled version of regular sunbathing <http://dict.qsbdc.com/sunbathing>, but both are potentially more dangerous than smoking.

  

  In 2014, researchers published a study in JAMA that found indoor tanning alone led to more cases of skin cancer than smoking did with lung cancer.

  

  "Given the large number of skin cancer cases attributable to indoor tanning, these findings highlight a major public health issue," the investigators <http://dict.qsbdc.com/investigators> wrote.

  

  Poor diet

  

  A wealth of evidence has found that sugary, processed foods high in saturated <http://dict.qsbdc.com/saturated> fats can expose people to potentially fatal diseases at similar, if not greater, rates than smoking.

  

  In 2016, researchers studying the mortality risks from poor diet concluded the death rates exceeded those of alcohol, drugs, unprotected sex, and tobacco combined.

  【译文】

  人体健康的五大杀手

  孤独

  社交媒体的发展和人际接触的减少,使得前外科医生维维克·穆尔西(VivekMurthy)将孤独列为一种世界性流行病。而且可能是烈度3。杨百翰大学心理学教授Julianne Holt-Lunstad在她的研究中发现,孤独使人的寿命缩短,相当于每天抽15支烟。

  长时间静坐

  2014年的一项研究发现,整天坐着会增加患多种癌症的风险。

  研究人员在他们的元分析中包括了来自四百万人的数据,其中包括他们坐着看电视、工作和通勤的频率。每增加两小时的坐着时间,人们患上结肠癌、子宫内膜癌和肺癌的风险就会增加,不管他们是否仍在白天锻炼。

  睡眠不足

  疾病控制和预防中心称睡眠不足是一个公共健康问题,因为在美国大约有50到七千万人有睡眠或觉醒障碍。世界卫生组织的瓦莱里·加法罗夫教授在2015指出,睡眠不足会使中风和心脏病发作的风险与正常吸烟的程度相当。他说:“睡眠不足应该被认为是心血管疾病的一个可改变的危险因素,还有吸烟、缺乏锻炼和饮食不良。”

  日光浴

  室内日光浴似乎是一种更受控制的常规日光浴,但两者都比吸烟更危险。

  2014,研究人员在JAMA上发表了一项研究,发现室内晒黑导致的皮肤癌病例比吸烟导致肺癌的病例还要多。“鉴于大量皮肤癌病例可归因于室内晒黑,这些发现突出了一个重大的公共卫生问题,”调查人员13写道。

  饮食不良

  大量的证据发现,含糖的加工食品富含脂肪,可能使人患上潜在的致命疾病,甚至比吸烟还要严重。

  2016,研究人员对不良饮食造成的死亡风险进行了研究,得出的结论是,死亡率超过了酒精、毒品、无保护的性行为和烟草的总和。

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